• 欢迎访问BruceOu的博客,推荐使用最新版火狐浏览器和Chrome浏览器访问本网站
  • 如果您觉得本站非常有看点,那么赶紧使用Ctrl+D 收藏本章吧

《Linux – Linux高级编程 – 第二部分 进程与线程》第2章 线程(四)

Linux高级编程 BruceOu 10个月前 (04-05) 241次浏览 0个评论

4 多线程经典问题(生产者-消费者)

s1iXE8.jpg

“生产者——消费者”问题是Linux多线程编程中的经典问题,主要是利用信号量处理线程间的同步和互斥问题。

“生产者——消费者”问题描述如下:

有一个有限缓冲区(这里用有名管道实现 FIFO 式缓冲区)和两个线程:生产者和消费者,它们分别不停地把产品放入缓冲区中拿走产品。一个生产者在缓冲区满的时候必须等待,一个消费者在缓冲区空的时候也不IXUS等待。另外,因为缓冲区是临界资源,所以生产者和消费者之间必须互斥进行。它们之间的关系如下:

cQmLmn.png

这里要求使用有名管道来模拟有限缓冲区,并用信号量来解决“生产者——消费者”问题中的同步和互斥问题。

4.1信号量分析

这里使用3个信号量,其中两个信号量 avail 和 full 分别用于解决生产者和消费者线程之间的互斥问题。其中avail 表示缓冲区的空单元数,初始值为N;full 表示缓冲区非空单元数,初始值为 0 ; mutex 是互斥信号量 ,初始值为 1(当然也可以用互斥锁来实现互斥操作)。

4.2画出流程图

cQmvkV.png

4.3编写代码

本实验的代码中缓冲区拥有3个单元,每个单元为5个字节。为了尽量体现每个信号量的意义,在程序中生产过程和消费过程是随机(采取0~5s 的随机事件间隔)进行的,而且生产者的速度比消费者的速度平均快两倍左右。生产者一次生产一个单元的产品(放入hello字符串),消费者一次消费一个单元的产品。

#include <stdio.h>  
#include <stdlib.h>  
#include <string.h>  
#include <unistd.h>  
#include <pthread.h>  
#include <sys/types.h>  
#include <time.h>  
#include <fcntl.h>  
#include <semaphore.h>  
#include <sys/ipc.h>  
#include <errno.h>  
#define MYFIFO "myfifo"  
#define BUFFER_SIZE 3  
#define UNIT_SIZE 5  
#define RUN_TIME 30  
#define DELAY_TIME_LEVELS 5.0  

void *producer(void *arg);  
void *customer(void *arg);  

int fd;  
time_t end_time;  
sem_t mutex,full,avail;  

int main()  
{  
    int ret;  
    pthread_t thrd_prd_id,thrd_cst_id;  

    srand(time(NULL));  
    end_time = time(NULL) + RUN_TIME;  

        /*创建有名管道*/  
    if((mkfifo(MYFIFO,0644) < 0) && (errno != EEXIST))  
    {  
        perror("mkfifo error!");  
        exit(-1);  
    }  

        /*打开管道*/  
    fd = open(MYFIFO,O_RDWR);  
    if(fd == -1)  
    {  
        perror("open fifo error");  
        exit(-1);  
    }  

        /*初始化互斥信号量为1*/  
    ret = sem_init(&mutex,0,1);  
        /*初始化avail信号量为 N */  
    ret += sem_init(&avail,0,BUFFER_SIZE);  
    /*初始化full信号量为0*/  
    ret += sem_init(&full,0,0);  

    if(ret != 0)  
    {  
        perror("sem_init error");  
        exit(-1);  
    }  

        /*创建两个线程*/  
    ret = pthread_create(&thrd_prd_id,NULL,producer,NULL);  
    if(ret != 0)  
    {  
        perror("producer pthread_create error");  
        exit(-1);  
    }  

    ret = pthread_create(&thrd_cst_id,NULL,customer,NULL);  
    if(ret != 0)  
    {  
        perror("customer pthread_create error");  
        exit(-1);  
    }  

    pthread_join(thrd_prd_id,NULL);  
    pthread_join(thrd_cst_id,NULL);  
    close(fd);  
    unlink(MYFIFO);  

    return 0;  
}  
void *producer(void *arg) //生产者线程  
{  
    int real_write;  
    int delay_time;  

    while(time(NULL) < end_time)  
    {  
        delay_time = (int)(rand() * DELAY_TIME_LEVELS/RAND_MAX/2.0) + 1;  
        sleep(delay_time);  

                /*P操作信号量avail和mutex*/  
        sem_wait(&avail);  
        sem_wait(&mutex);  
        printf("\nproducer have delayed %d seconds\n",delay_time);  

                /*生产者写入数据*/  
        if((real_write = write(fd,"hello",UNIT_SIZE)) == -1)  
        {  
            if(errno == EAGAIN)  
            {  
                printf("The buffer is full,please wait for reading!\n");  
            }  
        }  
        else  
        {  
            printf("producer writes %d bytes to the FIFO\n",real_write);          
            printf("Now,the buffer left %d spaces!\n",avail);  
        }  
                /*V操作信号量full 和 mutex*/  
        sem_post(&full);  
        sem_post(&mutex);  
    }  
    pthread_exit(NULL);  
}  

void *customer(void *arg) //消费者线程  
{  
    unsigned char read_buffer[UNIT_SIZE];  
    int real_read;  
    int delay_time;  

    while(time(NULL) < end_time)  
    {  
        delay_time = (int)(rand() * DELAY_TIME_LEVELS/RAND_MAX/2.0) + 1;  
        sleep(delay_time);  

        sem_wait(&full); //P操作信号量full和mutex  
        sem_wait(&mutex);  
        memset(read_buffer,0,UNIT_SIZE);  
        printf("\nCustomer have delayed %d seconds\n",delay_time);  

        if((real_read = read(fd,read_buffer,UNIT_SIZE)) == -1)  
        {  
            if(errno == EAGAIN)  
            {  
                printf("The buffer is empty,please wait for writing!\n");  
            }  
        }  
        else  
        {  
            printf("customer reads %d bytes from the FIFO\n",real_read);          
        }  

        sem_post(&avail); //V操作信号量 avail 和 mutex  
        sem_post(&mutex);         
    }  

    pthread_exit(NULL);  
} 

执行结果如下:

$ ./cust_prod   
producer have delayed 2 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 2 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 2 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 3 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 3 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 1 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

Customer have delayed 1 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 3 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 1 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 2 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 1 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 2 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 1 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 3 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

Customer have delayed 1 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 3 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

producer have delayed 1 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 1 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

Customer have delayed 1 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 3 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

Customer have delayed 2 seconds  
customer reads 5 bytes from the FIFO  

producer have delayed 2 seconds  
producer writes 5 bytes to the FIFO  
Now,the buffer left 2 spaces!  

BrueceOu , 版权所有丨如未注明 , 均为原创丨本网站采用BY-NC-SA协议进行授权
转载请注明原文链接:《Linux – Linux高级编程 – 第二部分 进程与线程》第2章 线程(四)
喜欢 (1)
[支付宝]
分享 (0)
发表我的评论
取消评论

表情 贴图 加粗 删除线 居中 斜体 签到

Hi,您需要填写昵称和邮箱!

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址